Dr. Warren Farrell’s research clearly uncovered the reasons for the pay gap. H found 25 items women can do to in order to earn as much or even more then men.
- Men do earn more then women
- because women choose low working hours, more time off, more safety, convenience, more freedom. This might be a wise choice, but it is not good for maximizing income
- In many fields women can earn more then men. Women who decide to dedicate themselves to high earning careers can earn more then men, effectively inverting the pay gap.
- Understanding the reasons for the pay gap empowers women to make life and career decisions that maximize their income
Dr. Warren Farrell, the only man ever elected three times to the Board of the National Organization for Women in NYC, once asked, “If men are paid more for the same work, why would anyone hire a man?”
He may be sorry he asked. But during the years of research that followed, the answer evolved: Men earn more than women, but not for the same work—for 25 different workplace choices. Men’s choices lead to men earning more money; women’s choices lead to women having better lives.
Men’s trade-offs include working more hours (women typically work more at home); taking more-hazardous assignments (cab-driving; construction; trucking); moving overseas or to an undesirable location on-demand (women’s greater family obligations inhibit this); and training for more-technical jobs with less people contact (e.g., engineering).
Women’s choices appear more likely to involve a balance between work and the rest of life. Women are more likely to balance income with a desire for safety, fulfillment, potential for personal growth, flexibility and proximity-to-home. These lifestyle advantages lead to more people competing for these jobs and thus lower pay.
Only when Dr. Farrell’s research journey uncovered these 25 differences, did the “holy grail” become visible: women now earn more money for the same work—that is, women earn more when they work equal hours at the same job with the same size of responsibility for the same length of time with equal productivity, etc. The women’s movement can celebrate its greatest single triumph—exceeding its goal of equal pay for equal work. A triumph that frees women to enter the next level of progress…
Since men still earn more money, Why Men Earn More introduces to women the 25 ways to higher pay, showing which trade-offs lead to how much increase in pay, creating for women an opportunity to decide which trade-offs are worth it given her individual personality and current goals.
read more at summary of Warren Farrell: Why men earn more
25 ways for women to earn more then men
Chapter 2 The Field-with-Higher-Yield Formula: The First Five Ways (p. 18)
• 1. Choose a field in technology or the hard sciences, not the arts or social sciences (pharmacology vs. literature) (p. 27)
• 2. Get hazard pay without the hazards (female administrator in Air Force vs. male combat soldier in Army) (p. 27)
• The Catch-22 of Hazardous Occupations Creates a Female “Glass Cellar” (p. 27)
• How Hazardous Occupations Give Women Equal Pay with Unequal Hazards
• Why Hazardous Jobs Can Be So Much Less Hazardous for Women (p. 31)
• The “Protection Dilemma”: The Warrior vs. the Worrier (p. 33)
• The Costs and Benefits of Choosing Safety (p. 35)
• Industrialization’s Unconscious Transition in a Mom’s way of Risking her Life (p. 35)
• How Men in the Hazardous Professions are their Own Worst Enemy (p. 36)
• Men’s Weakness As Their Façade Of Strength; Women’s Strength as Their Façade Of Weakness (p. 38)
• Our praise of our sons when they risk physical danger teaches our sons that being willing to be physically abused creates love. (p. 39)
• How to Make a Fortune in the Death Professions Without the Death or the Dirt (p.41)
• 3. Among jobs requiring little education, those that expose you to the sleet and heat pay more than those that are indoors and neat (Fed Ex delivery vs. receptionist) (p. 44)
• When Affirmative Action Marries Technology and Invites Women into the Family (p. 45)
• 4. In most fields with higher pay, you can’t psychologically check out at the end of the day (corporate attorney vs. librarian) (p. 47)
• 5. Fields with higher pay often have lower fulfillment (tax accountant vs. childcare professional) (p. 50)
• The gender pay gap is better explained as a gender fulfillment gap. (p. 52)
• Women penetrate glass ceiling, find wisdom, leave. (p.52)
Chapter 3 The Field-with-Higher-Yield Formula: The Final Five (p. 60)
• 6. People Who Get Higher Financial Rewards Choose Fields with Higher Financial and Emotional Risks (venture capitalist vs. supermarket cashier) (p. 60)
• 7. Many Fields with Higher Pay Require Working the Worst Shifts During the Worst Hours (private practice medical doctor vs. HMO medical doctor) (p. 66)
• 8. Some Jobs Pay More to Attract People to Unpleasant Environments Without Many People (prison guard vs. restaurant hostess) (p. 69)
• 9. Updating Pays: Currency begets Currency (sales engineer vs. French language scholar) (p. 72)
• 10. People Who Get Higher Pay Choose Sub-fields With High Pay (p. 74)
Chapter 4 Doing Time: People Who Get Higher Pay… (p.77)
• 11. Work More Hours – And It Makes a Big Difference. (p. 78)
• Is the Gender Pay Gap Mostly an Hours-Worked Gap? (p. 82)
• Breaking the Glass Ceiling Time Barrier (p. 82)
• How 7-11 Pay Creates the Option for Women of Succeeding at Work without Failing at Home (p. 82)
• 12. Have More Years of Experience –Especially in Their Current Occupation (p.85)
• 13. Have More Years of Recent, Uninterrupted Experience with Their Current Employer (p.87)
• 14. Work More Weeks During the Year (p.89)
• 15. Are Absent Less Often from Work (p. 90)
• 16. Commute to Jobs that are Farther Away. (p. 90)
Chapter 5 On the Move: People Who Get Higher Pay… (p. 93)
• 17. Are More Willing to Relocate—Especially to Undesirable Locations at the Company’s Behest (p. 93)
• Move Overseas: The Farther Away, The Farther Up (p. 94)
• Move Upon Demand; and Move for Two Decades (p. 95)
• 18. Are More Willing to Travel Extensively On the Job (p. 100)
Chapter 6. Responsibility, Training, Ambition, and Productivity:
People Who Get Higher Pay… (p. 103)
• 19. Take on Different Responsibilities Even When Their Titles Are the Same (p. 104)
• 20. Take On Bigger Responsibilities Even When Their Job Titles Are the Same (p. 105)
• 21. Require Less Security (p. 107)
• 22. Have More Relevant Training In Their Current Occupation (p. 108)
• 23. Have Higher Career Goals to Begin With (p. 109)
• 24. Do More In-Depth Job Searches (p.113)
• 25. Above All, Produce More (p. 115)
- Why Men Earn More: The Startling Truth Behind the Pay Gap — and What Women Can Do About It |Amazon.com
women should stop trying to play off "victim power" and start wielding their true earning power.
"Companies like I.B.M. have offered women scholarships to study engineering for years, and women engineers routinely get higher starting salaries than men," he said. NYT
Women, he believes, methodically engineer their own paltry pay. They choose psychically fulfilling jobs, like librarian or art historian, that attract enough applicants for the law of supply and demand to kick in and depress pay. They avoid well-paid but presumably risky work – hence, the paucity of women flying planes. And they tend to put in fewer hours than men – no small point, he says, because people who work 44 hours a week make almost twice as much as those who work 34 and are more likely to be promoted. NYT
The Census Bureau did find that women earned 76 cents for every dollar paid to a male (now up to 80 cents on the dollar), but that was a raw number, not adjusted for comparable jobs and responsibility. A new book, Why Men Earn More by Warren Farrell, goes further, examining a broad array of wage statistics. His conclusion: When reasonable adjustments are made, women earn just as much as men, and sometimes more.
Some of Farrell’s findings: Women are 15 times as likely as men to become top executives in major corporations before the age of 40. Never-married, college-educated males who work full time make only 85 percent of what comparable women earn. Female pay exceeds male pay in more than 80 different fields, 39 of them large fields that offer good jobs, like financial analyst, engineering manager, sales engineer, statistician, surveying and mapping technicians, agricultural and food scientists, and aerospace engineer. A female investment banker’s starting salary is 116 percent of a male’s. Part-time female workers make $1.10 for every $1 earned by part-time males.
Surprisingly, Farrell argues that comparable males and females have been earning similar salaries for decades, though the press has yet to notice. As long ago as the early 1980s, he writes, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics found that companies paid men and women equal money when their titles and responsibilities were the same. In 1969, data from the American Council on Education showed that female professors who had never been married and had never published earned 145 percent of their male counterparts’ pay. Even during the 1950s, Farrell says, the gender pay gap for all never-married workers was less than 2 percent while never-married white women between 45 and 54 earned 106 percent of what their white male counterparts made. USNews
Over 6 years ago, Warren Farrell debunked the pay gap myth and clearly explained all the reasons for income differences between men and women. Thus he gave all the means needed for women to not only close the pay gap but actually earn more and invert the pay gap.
Warren Farrell, the only man to have been elected three times to the National Organization for Women’s New York board of directors, is the author of such books as The Myth of Male Power and Why Men Are the Way They Are. In his new book, he argues that women earn less than men on average not because they are discriminated against, but because they have made lifestyle choices that affect their ability to earn. Why Men Earn More argues that although discrimination sometimes plays a part, both men and women unconsciously make trade-offs that affect how much they earn. Farrell clearly defines the 25 different workplace choices that affect incomes—including putting in more hours at work, taking riskier jobs or more hazardous assignments, being willing to change location, and training for technical jobs that involve less people contact—and provides readers with specific, research-supported ways for women to earn higher pay. Cato Institute